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Establishment of National Spatial Data Infrastructure

Establishment of National Spatial Data Infrastructure
  • NGII Plan
  • Building National Spatial Imagenery Database
  • Establishment of National Spatial Data Infrastructure
  • Production and dissemination of national map
Definition of Basic Geographic Information
Legal Definition
Prescribed by Presidential decree, basic and major geographic information refers to administrative districts, transportation, seas and water resources (including water systems), cadaster, surveying control points, topography, facilities (including cultural assets designated by the nation, a si or a do), satellite images, aerial photographs, and others items selected by heads of related central administrative agencies upon deliberation by additional committees.

Definition in Work Guidelines on Basic Geographic Information-Notification No. 2004-132, Ministry of Construction and Transportation

"Basic geographic information" refers to a basic framework to provide a reference system for location or contents and to establish an integrating model in order to integrate and utilize a wide variety of geographic information, and is set by Article 14 of the Act on the Building and Utilization, etc. of National Geographic Information System and Article of 15 of its enforcement decree.
Timeline
First Pilot Project: 2001
Conducted experiments and research on constructing and utilizing a geographic information system (GIS)

Reviewed component technologies for construction of a GIS, and set up future goals

Cheongju (1/1000), Jeju Island area (1/5000)
Second Pilot Project: 2002
Constructed a pilot GIS reflecting the results of experimental research (the entire area of Gyeonggi-do) Reviewed data conversion

Constructed a GIS on a map-sheet basis for Busan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do as a project for revising and renewing a digital map version 2.0
GIS Construction in Transportation (road) Sector: 2003
Constructed database for the transportation (road) sector

Planed to utilize large-scale database

Selected a single unified coordinate system

Devised measures to utilize the selected coordinate system and connect it to application systems
GIS Construction for Water Resources Sector: 2004
Constructed database for the water resources sector

Set up basic guidelines to develop specifications for GIS data production

Evaluated adequacy

Developed specifications for GIS data production by sector
GIS Construction for Facilities (building) Sector and Research Project: 2005
Constructed database for the facilities (building) sector

Conducted experiment on utilization (buildings and administrative boundaries)

Carried out a study of establishing secondary GIS implementation strategies
GIS Database Update Projects: 2006
Constructed database for the railway sector

Updated GIS database established in transportation (road), water resources, and facilities (building) sectors
Following GIS Database Update Project: 2007
Updated GIS database constructed for the transportation (road), water resources, facilities (building), and railway sectors
Construction Items and Institutions by GIS Sector
Construction Items and Institutions by GIS Sector
Sectors Construction item Institutions responsible for database construction
Administrative district Administrative districts Ministry of Government Affairs and Home Affairs
Transportation Railway boundaries and railway centerlines National Railroad Administration
Road boundaries and road centerlines National Geographic Information Institute
Seas and water resources Coastlines, submarine topography, and maritime boundaries Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Basin boundaries Korea Water Resources Corporation
River boundaries, river centerlines, lakes, etc. National Geographic Information Institute
Cadaster Cadaster Ministry of Government Affairs and Home Affairs
Surveying control points Surveying control points National Geographic Information Institute
Topography DEM (Digital Elevation Model) National Geographic Information Institute
Facilities Buildings National Geographic Information Institute
Cultural assets Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea
Satellite images and aerial photographs Satellite images National Geographic Information Institute
Aerial photographs National Geographic Information Institute
Elements of GIS
Regardless of fundamental geographic information or GIS application systems, GIS consists of three elements: a data set to assist an economic database, a unique feature identifier for connection to an external database, and a data model for consistent data maintenance.
  • Elements of GIS Elements of GIS
First Element: Data Set of GIS
The data sets of GIS are made up of three kinds of data: common data required by large numbers of users, reference data used to identify other data, and data which serve as a datum reference.
Second Element: Unique Feature Identifier
Terrain features are the most fundamental factor in constructing a database for GIS. They can be defined as "a spatial object which can impart a meaning to the real world." Therefore, each terrain feature consists of spatial data marking spatial locations, and is attributed data that describe a meaning in the real world. In addition, there must be an identifier which is used for the two following purposes.

-Connection spatial and non-spatial data

-Reference to terrain features
Third Element: Data Model
A data model is another crucial factor for enhancing the utilization of data, since it describes the associative relationship between data items and their structure. In addition, it enables data specification which clarifies the constraint conditions on data construction. The specification ensures consistency in data construction, enabling multiple data constructers to build distributed data. In general, a data model for GIS is roughly divided into a spatial data model and a terrain feature data model. The spatial data model is subdivided into a geometric data model and a topologic data model. A semantic data model is used to describe the associative relationship between terrain features rather than between spaces.
Coordinate System of GIS (Notification No. 2004-131, the Ministry of Construction and Transportation)
Notification content
Datum point of a simple plane rectangular coordinate system
Name: UTM-K (Universal Transverse Mercator-Korea)
Datum points of longitude and latitude
- Longitude: 127°30'00.000" east longitude
- Latitude: 38°00'00.000" north latitude
Application area: the entire Korean peninsula
Projection
Use of a Transverse Mercator projection and scale factor of 0.9996
Values of the projection datum
In order to avoid confusion with former Cartesian coordinates and to establish a distinction, the initial values of the projection datum are set X (N) 2,000,000m and Y (E) 1,000,000m.
  • Longitude(deg) Longitude(deg)
Entire Data Model of GIS
Regardless of basic geographic information or GIS application system, GIS consists of three elements: a data set to assist an economic database, a unique feature identifier for connection to an external database, and a data model for consistent data maintenance.
The data model of GIS has the following four features:
First, it defines a terrain feature class that represents real-world objects.
Second, the terrain feature class is given a unique identifier so as to identify a specific terrain feature.
Third, it refers to a spatial object class to describe the spatial form of terrain features.
Fourth, it defines an attribute class and a network attribute class in order to link terrain features and an external database.
The following figure shows the four features of a GIS data model in a diagram.
  • Diagram of GIS Data Model (conceptual model) Diagram of GIS Data Model (conceptual model)
    1. 1. Describe real-world terrain features, the basic unit of data storage
    2. 2. Use as reference
    3. 3. Base on spatial model->OGC model, representation of line topology
    4. 4. Able to link with external database
Data Model by Item
Roads
Geographic Feature for database Construction
- Road centerline class: including unit roads and road intersection points
- Road boundary class: including unit road surfaces and road intersection surfaces
  • Unit Road Unit Road
  • Road Intersection Point Road Intersection Point
  • Unit Road Surface Unit Road Surface
  • Road Intersection Surface Road Intersection Surface
Attribute Information
Attributes of roads are to be described as the central line of the road (unit road). The ratio of the central line to the boundary (unit road «-» unit road surface, unit road surface «-» road intersection surface) is generally 1:1.
Attribute List
Attribute List of the Transportation (Road) Sector
Attribute List of the Transportation (Road) Sector
Title Definition Attribute type Remark
Road number Describe a number of road corresponding to a unit road Road No. Local roads and higher grades
Road type Describe the grade of road corresponding to a unit road National highways, national roads, local road, si and gun roads, myeon and ri roads, etc.  
Starting point Describe UFID of road intersection point where a unit road starts UFID  
End point Describe UFID of road intersection point where a unit road ends UFID  
Direction of unit road Describe the direction of a unit road Both directions  
Railways
Railway centerline class: including unit railways and railway intersection points
Railway boundary class: including unit railway surfaces and railway intersection surfaces
Attribute information
Attributes of railways are to be described in the central line of the railway (unit railway), and the ratio of the central line to the boundary (unit railway «-» unit railway surface, unit railway surface «-» railway intersection surface) is generally 1:1.
Attribute List
Attribute List of Transportation (Railway) Sector
Attribute List of Transportation (Railway) Sector
Item Definition Attribute type Remark
Railway name Describe a railway name corresponding to a unit railway Ex.) Gyeongbu Line, Honam Line, Kyonbu High Speed Rail, etc.  
Railway type Describe a grade of railway corresponding to a unit railway General railroad, high-speed railroad, underground special railroad, etc.  
UFID UFID    
Facilities (Building) Sector
Facilities
-Terrain feature class residential buildings: General housing and public housing
-Terrain feature class non-residential buildings: Public institution, industry, culture/education, medical/welfare, service and other facilities
  • Public housing Public housing
  • Public institution Public institution
  • General housing General housing
  • Culture/education facilities Culture/education facilities
  • Industrial facilities Industrial facilities
  • Medical and Welfare Medical and Welfare
  • Service facilities Service facilities
  • Other facilities Other facilities
Attribute Information
Attribute List
-Attribute List of the Facilities (Building) Sector
Attribute List of the Facilities (Building) Sector
Item Definition Attribute Type
Building Type Select and enter a building type corresponding to a particular building In the case of a complex facility, select and enter building type in the following order:

Public instruction > culture/education > medical/welfare > industry > service > public housing > general housing
Building Name Insert a building name that is in use  
UFID UFID  
Water Resources (River) Sector
  • River Junction River Junction
  • River Flow River Flow
  • River Auxiliary Facilities River Auxiliary Facilities
  • Lake and Reservoir Lake and Reservoir
  • River Boundary River Boundary
  • Streamlet Streamlet
  • River Centerline River Centerline
  • River Basin Boundary River Basin Boundary
Attribute Information
Attribute List
Attribute List of the Water Resources (River) Sector
Attribute List of the Water Resources (River) Sector
Item Definition Remark
River Name River name Lake/reservoir, boundary of river zone, streamlet, river centerline, river basin boundary, river flow
UFID The unique identifier that pinpoints exactly one river junction among other junctions River flow
River Code A unique code for river management which describes a code number of a river that contains a river junction River flow
Type of Starting Point UFID of river junction FT or null River flow
Type of End Point UFID of river junction FT or null River flow
Direction of River Flow Insert “staring an imaginary line,†if the value of a direction in a river flow line and a starting point is 0 and a value of an end point is equal to the UFID of a river junction. If starting and end points are equal to UFID of a river junction, then insert “flow.†River flow
Measures for Distribution and Utilization
Attribute Information
Attribute List
Attribute List of Measures for Distribution and Utilization
Attribute List of Measures for Distribution and Utilization
Division Data Capacity (based on NGI format) Price
Transportation (Road) GIS 3.06GB KRW 3/KB
Water Resources (River) GIS 1.453GB  
Facilities (Building) GIS 2.838GB  
Transportation (Road) GIS Price undecided  
Sales Unit
It is possible to sell it in any format that consumers want
National Unit
  • Three part of National Unit -Transportation (Road) GIS, -Facilities (Building) GIS, -Water Resources (River) GIS Unit of administrative district ex) Northern area of the Han River, Seoul Metropolis
  • Transportation (Road) GIS Transportation (Road) GIS
  • Water Resources (River) GIS Water Resources (River) GIS
  • Facilities (Building) GIS Facilities (Building) GIS
Reference
Comparison between Digital Map and GIS
  • Digital map (v1.0 or v2.0) Digital map (v1.0 or v2.0)
  • Facilities (building) Facilities (building)
  • Facilities (building) + transportation (road) Facilities (building) + transportation (road)
  • Facilities (building) + transportation (road) + water resources (river) Facilities (building) + transportation (road) + water resources (river)